Monday, February 06, 2006

Malay Music Gamelan.


The Malay Gamelan is distinctly different from the Javanese or Balinese Gamelan, not so much in the instruments used but rather in the music played. The gamelan was brought over to Pahang in Malaysia in 1811 from Riau-Lingga and spread to Terengganu shortly afterwards through a royal marriage. From the over 60 songs initially brought over, about half died with the original players and of the 30 remaining only about 12 are regularly performed today. Malay gamelan music is very simplistic in that nearly all instruments play the melody, unlike the intricately locked parts of the Javanese gamelan. There is currently a revival of interest in Malay gamelan music, led by Ariff Ahmad of Universiti Malaya, with many new pieces being written out for the ensemble. Cipher notation, common to Javanese gamelan and Chinese music, is used. Instruments used include: saron (a metallophone), gambang (a xylophone), keromong or bonang (sets of small kettle gongs), kenong (larger kettle gongs), gong and gendang or drums. As is customary in gamelan performance, players move around between instruments from piece to piece. Malay gamelan music is usually played during royal and formal occassions and that performers are specially trained in royal palaces. Ariff Ahmad would like to see gamelan music being performed more frequently for all occassions and has expended much effort in promoting and writing music for the Universiti Malaya gamelan troupe which performs regularly for various occassions. Besides Universiti Malaya, various other local insitutions of higher learning have set up their own gamelan troupes, the most prominent of these being the Universiti Sains Malaysia group in Penang which in 1995 performed the Concerto for Piano and Gamelan by Lou Harrison.

Malay Music Gamelan.


The Malay Gamelan is distinctly different from the Javanese or Balinese Gamelan, not so much in the instruments used but rather in the music played. The gamelan was brought over to Pahang in Malaysia in 1811 from Riau-Lingga and spread to Terengganu shortly afterwards through a royal marriage. From the over 60 songs initially brought over, about half died with the original players and of the 30 remaining only about 12 are regularly performed today. Malay gamelan music is very simplistic in that nearly all instruments play the melody, unlike the intricately locked parts of the Javanese gamelan. There is currently a revival of interest in Malay gamelan music, led by Ariff Ahmad of Universiti Malaya, with many new pieces being written out for the ensemble. Cipher notation, common to Javanese gamelan and Chinese music, is used. Instruments used include: saron (a metallophone), gambang (a xylophone), keromong or bonang (sets of small kettle gongs), kenong (larger kettle gongs), gong and gendang or drums. As is customary in gamelan performance, players move around between instruments from piece to piece. Malay gamelan music is usually played during royal and formal occassions and that performers are specially trained in royal palaces. Ariff Ahmad would like to see gamelan music being performed more frequently for all occassions and has expended much effort in promoting and writing music for the Universiti Malaya gamelan troupe which performs regularly for various occassions. Besides Universiti Malaya, various other local insitutions of higher learning have set up their own gamelan troupes, the most prominent of these being the Universiti Sains Malaysia group in Penang which in 1995 performed the Concerto for Piano and Gamelan by Lou Harrison.


Every child, woman and man has an innate musical ability. This latent potential can be developed and nurtured for healthier and more enriching lifestyles.

Research shows that a good music education stimulates creativity, builds confidence and enhances a child's all-round development. As adults they enjoy enhanced social recognition because of their ability to listen, read, play and express their feelings through music.

Notes Of Music.

In the Sachs-Hornbostel hierarchical scheme for classifying musical instruments, aerophones are wind instruments - air is the primary vibrating agent causing sound. These include such instruments bull roarers, flutes, trombones or accordions.

In the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, these instruments all have strings or stretched between fixed points; harps, guitars, pianos, violins all fall into this category.

In Western music theory, this refers to a melody or scale that is based on the twelve semitones that divide an octave (for example, C to C' on a keyboard).

A mechanical device, essentially a length of tube that can be inserted or removed from the body of a brass instrument (such as a trumpet or horn) to change the length of the airpassage - this enables you to change the range of pitch es the instrument can produce.

According to Western music theory, a diatonic scale divides an octave into a sequence of five wholetones and two semitones. For example: T-T-S-T-T-T-ST or C-D-E-F-G-A-B

Like membranophones, idiophones are also part of the Sachs-Hornbostel family of percussion instruments; sound is produced from the substance of the instrument itself - you shake them; no strings or drum heads required. These include rattles and bells, for example.

A glissando is a sliding musical sound, a smooth and seamless rising and falling of pitches; you can easily create this effect with your voice or on many other instruments such as the theremin, trombone or violin.

Like idiophones, this is another family of percussion instruments categorized by the Sachs-Hornbostel system. You create sounds by striking or rubbing on the head , which is usually stretched hide or plastic. This family includes most drums.

Also called a pick, this small thin wedge of wood, plastic or other material is used to play string instruments such as the guitar

Reeds, Free and Fixed.
Reeds are thin tongues or strips of metal, plastic or cane material which are set into vibration by a column of air from a players lungs (for example, an oboe) or from an instrument's bellows (for example,the accordion or organ.) Fixed reeds beat against a fixed surface; as its name suggests, a free reed (attached at one end to the instrument) moves freely in the air .

A scale is a sequence of notes that fall into a specific pattern, either ascending or descending. In Western harmonic theory, the most familiar scales are diatonic (major and minor) chromatic, and pentatonic (a five note scale), but the possibilities of scale patterns are infinite. Each musical culture establishes its own rules that determine how scales are made and used. For example, in India, scale patterns are called ragas; specific ragas may be associated with different times of the day, certain colours, or evocative moods.

The semitone is the smallest interval (or distance between pitches) that you can play on a piano keyboard; in equal temperment, each semitone equals exactly 100 cents. In Western harmony, an octave (for example, from C to C' ), can be divided into 12 semitones.

Valve, Piston and Rotary.
A valve is a mechanism which changes the length of the tube, or body of a wind instrument; it allows you to play a wider range of notes. A piston valve features a that moves up and down in a casing; a rotary valve changes the air passage by means of a rotor activated by a lever.

A wholetone is made up of two semitones

Hip-hop Music (Rap)

Hip hop music
Hip hop music (Rap)

Stylistic origins: Jamaican Dancehall toasting alongside the rhythms of R&B, disco and funk
Cultural origins: late 1960s/early 1970s: Kingston, Jamaica - early 1970s South Bronx, New York City
Typical instruments: Turntable, drum machine, Sampler, synthesizer, human beatboxing
Mainstream popularity: Since late 1980s in the United States, worldwide beginning in early 1990s, among best-selling genres of music by early 2000s.
Derivative forms: Trip hop
Abstract - Alternative - Chopped and screwed - Christian - Crunk - Gangsta - G-funk - Hardcore - Horrorcore - Instrumental - Jazz rap - Latin rap - Nerdcore - Old school - Pop rap
Fusion genres
Country rap - Electro hop - Freestyle - Hip house - Hip life - Ghettotech - Hip-hop soul - Miami bass - Neo soul - New jack swing - Ragga - Rap metal - Reggaeton - Urban Pasifika
Regional scenes
African - American: (East - West - South - Midwest) - French - Japanese - Others...
Other topics
Beatboxing - Breakdancing - Collaborations - DJing (Turntablism) - Hip hop culture - Fashion - Hip hop music - Feuds - Graffiti - History - List of rappers - Rapping - Roots - Slang - Timeline
Hip hop music (also referred to as rap or rap music) is a style of popular music. It is made up of two main components: rapping (MC'ing) and DJing (audio mixing and scratching); along with breakdancing and graffiti (tagging), these are the four elements of hip hop, a cultural movement which began among African Americans and Latinos in New York City in the early 1970s.

Most typically, hip hop music consists of one or more rappers who chant semi-autobiographic tales, often relating to a fictionalized counterpart, in an intensely rhythmic lyrical form, making abundant use of techniques like assonance, alliteration, and rhyme. The rapper is accompanied by an instrumental track, usually referred to as a "beat" because of the emphasis on rhythm, performed by a DJ, a record producer, or one or more instrumentalists. This beat is often created using a sample of the percussion break of another song, usually a funk, rock, or soul recording. In addition to the beat, other sounds are often sampled, synthesized, or performed. Sometimes, a track can be made up of just the beat by itself, as a showcase of the skills of the DJ or producer.

Hip hop arose in New York City when DJs began isolating the percussion break from funk or disco songs. The role of the emcee (MC) arose to introduce the DJ and the music, and to keep the audience excited. The MCs began by speaking between songs, giving exhortations to dance, greetings to audience members, jokes and anecdotes. Eventually, this practice came to be more stylized, and was known as rapping. By 1979, hip hop had become a commercially recorded music genre, and began to enter the American mainstream. It also began its spread across the world. In the 1990s, a form called gangsta rap became a major part of American music, causing significant controversy over lyrics which were perceived as promoting violence, promiscuity, drug use and misogyny. Nevertheless, by the beginning of the 2000s, hip hop was a staple of popular music charts and was being performed in many styles across the world.

1 Term usage
2 Characteristics
2.1 Rhythmic structure
2.2 Instrumentation & production
3 History
3.1 Origins
3.2 Old school hip hop (1970–1986)
3.2.1 1970s
3.2.2 1980s
3.3 Golden age hip hop (1986–1993)
3.4 Modern era of hip hop (1993–present)
3.4.1 Diversification
4 Social impact
4.1 Musical impact
4.2 Censorship issues
4.3 Media

Term usage

The terms rap and rap music are often used to describe hip hop music; the terms rap music and hip hop music are generally synonymous, although rap music is usually not used to describe hip hop songs without vocals. Many hip hop heads, as participants of the culture are called, arbitrarily separate the two terms by labeling the more commercial recordings as rap music, and the more underground-based recordings as hip hop music. Hip hop music is also erroneously used at times to describe related genres of music, such as contemporary R&B, which are primarily sung; while singing is commonly present in hip-hop songs, the main vocal (assuming there are vocals) is almost always rapped.


Hip hop is a cultural movement, of which music is a part (as are graffiti and breakdancing). The music is itself composed of two parts, rapping, the delivery of swift, highly rhythmic and lyrical vocals, and DJing, the production of instrumentation either through sampling, instrumentation, turntablism or beatboxing. Another important factor of Hip-Hop music is the fashion that originated along with the music. The fashion was a representation of the music.

Rhythmic structure

Beats (though not necessarily raps) in hip hop are almost always in 4/4 time signature. At its rhythmic core, hip hop swings: instead of a straight 4/4 count (pop music; rock 'n' roll; etc.), hip hop is based on an anticipated feel somewhat similar to the "swing" emphasis found in jazz beats. Like the triplet emphasis in swing, hip hop's rhythm is subtle, rarely written as it sounds (4/4 basic; the drummer adds the hip hop interpretation) and is often played in an almost "late" or laid back way.

This style was innovated predominantly in soul and funk music, where beats and thematic music were repeated for the duration of tracks. In the 1960s and 1970s, James Brown (known as The Godfather of Soul) talked, sung, and screamed much as MCs do today. This musical style provides the perfect platform for MCs to rhyme. Hip hop music generally caters to the MC for this reason, amplifying the importance of lyrical and delivering prowess.

Instrumental hip hop is perhaps the lone exception to this rule. In this hip hop subgenre, DJs and producers are free to experiment with creating instrumental tracks. While they may mix in sampled rap vocals, they are not bound by the need to cater to an MC.

Instrumentation & production

DJ Premier, a popular and influential hip hop producer and DJ from New York.The instrumentation of hip-hop is descended from disco, funk, and R&B, both in the sound systems and records sampled, and session musicians and their instrumentation, used. Disco and club DJs' use of mixing originated from the need to have continuous music and thus smooth transitions between tracks, while in hip hop Kool DJ Herc originated the practice of isolating and extending only the break, basically short percussion solo interludes, by mixing between two copies of the same record, as this was, according to Afrika Bambaataa the "certain part of the record that everybody waits for -- they just let their inner self go and get wild." (Toop, 1991) James Brown, Bob James, and Parliament -- among many others -- have long been popular sources for breaks. Over this one could and did add instrumental parts from other records, frequently as horn punches (ibid). Thus the instrumentation of early sampled or sound system-based hip hop is the same as funk, disco, or rock: vocals, guitar, keyboards, bass, drums and percussion.

Although hip hop's original music consisted solely of the DJ's breakbeats and other vinyl record pieces, the advent of the drum machine allowed hip hop musicians to develop partially original scores. Drum set sounds could be played either over the music from vinyl records or by themselves. The importance of quality drum sequences became the most important focus of hip hop musicians because these rhythms (beats) were the most danceable part. Consequently, drum machines were equipped to produce strong kick sounds with powerful (sine) bass behind them. This helped emulate the very well-engineered drum solos on old funk, soul and rock albums from the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s. Drum machines had a limited array of predetermined sounds, including hi-hats, snares, toms, and kick drums.

The introduction of the digital sampler changed the way hip hop was produced. A sampler can digitally record and save small sound clips from any output device, such as a turntable. Producers were able to sample their own drum sounds from the records they grew up listening to. Perhaps more importantly, they could sample horns, upright basses, guitars and pianos to play along with their drums. Hip hop had finally gathered its complete band.

What many fail to recognize is the distinct importance of the gritty, choppy sound of hip hop. The music seldom sounds like other organic forms. Even hip hop crews that have their own band often use samples and the gritty, choppy texture of machines to create their beats in the studio as featured on their album (when performing live, they usually recreate this sound with a full band). One popular misconception is that samples and drum machines exist in hip hop music as merely a lazy substitute for a real band; in fact, hip hop producers obsess over the timbre, texture and frequency of specific samples and drum machine sounds. A session drummer playing James Brown's Funky Drummer break is no substitute for the sampled break from the original record. However, in recent years, there has been a tendency towards original instrumental compositions in hip hop from the likes of artists and producers such as Timbaland, OutKast, The Roots and The Neptunes.


For more details on this topic, see History of hip hop music.
Hip-hop music can be divided into three eras. The Old school hip-hop era, from 1970 to 1986, spanned from the beginning of hip-hop until its emergence into the mainstream. The golden age of hip hop, from 1986 - 1993, consolidated the sounds of the East Coast and the West Coast, and transitioned into the modern era with the rise of gangsta rap and G-funk. The Modern era of hip hop, from 1993 to the present day, saw hip hop music becoming one of the most popular and successful forms of American music.


The roots of hip hop music are in West African and African American music. The griots of West Africa are a group of traveling singers and poets, whose musical style is reminiscent of hip hop. Discussion of the roots of hip hop (and rap) must mention the contributions of The Last Poets and Jalal Mansur Nuriddin, whose jazzy and poetic "spiels" commented on 1960's culture. True hip hop arose during the 1970s when block parties became common in New York City, especially in the Bronx. Block parties were usually accompanied by music, especially funk and soul music. The early DJs at block parties began isolating the percussion breaks to hit songs, realizing that these were the most danceable and entertaining parts; this technique was then common in Jamaica (see dub music) and had spread via the substantial Jamaican immigrant community in New York City, especially the godfather of hip hop, DJ Kool Herc. Dub had arisen in Jamaica due to the influence of American sailors and radio stations playing R&B. Large sound systems were set up to accommodate poor Jamaicans, who couldn't afford to buy records, and dub developed at the sound systems (refers to both the system and the parties that evolved around them).

Old school hip hop (1970–1986)


Herc was one of the most popular DJs in early 70s New York, and he quickly switched from using reggae records to funk, rock and, later, disco, since the New York audience did not particularly like reggae. Because the percussive breaks were generally short, Herc and other DJs began extending them using an audio mixer and two records. Mixing and scratching techniques eventually developed along with the breaks. (The same techniques contributed to the popularization of remixes.) As in dub, performers began speaking while the music played; these were originally called MCs; Herc focused primarily on DJing, and began working with two MCs, Coke La Rock and Clark Kent—this was the first emcee crew, Kool Herc & the Herculoids. Originally, these early rappers focused on introducing themselves and others in the audience (the origin of the still common practice of "shouting out" on hip hop records). These early performers often emceed for hours at a time, with some improvisation and a simple four-count beat, along with a basic chorus to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (such as "one, two, three, y'all, to the beat, y'all"). Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic approach, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort at differentiating themselves and entertaining the audience. These early raps incorporated similar rhyming lyrics from African American culture (see roots of hip hop music), such as the dozens. While Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hoppers to gain major fame in New York, more emcee teams quickly sprouted up. Frequently, these were collaborations between former gang members, such as Afrika Bambaataa's Universal Zulu Nation (now a large, international organization). During the early 1970s, breakdancing arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style. The style was documented for release to a world wide audience for the first time in Beat Street.

The public at large was first introduced to hip hop by the releases of the first two commercially issued hip hop recordings, "King Tim III" by The Fatback Band and "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang. Neither act had significant roots in the culture; the Fatback Band was primarily a funk act, while the Sugarhill Gang was the studio creation of Sugar Hill co-founder Sylvia Robinson. Nevertheless, "Rapper's Delight" became a Top 40 hit on the U.S. Billboard pop singles chart, and after the releases of follow ups by acts such as Kurtis Blow ("The Breaks"), The Sequence ("Funk You Up"), and Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five ("Freedom"), hip hop was pegged as a successful, yet temporary, trend in music.

Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five were one of the earliest hip hop recording acts, best known for their seminal 1982 single "The Message".


The 1980s saw intense diversification in hip hop, which developed into a more complex form. The simple tales of 1970s emcees were replaced by highly metaphoric lyrics rapping over complex, multi-layered beats. Some rappers even became mainstream pop performers, including Kurtis Blow, whose appearance in a Sprite commercial made him the first hip hop musician to be considered mainstream enough to represent a major product, but also the first to be accused by the hip-hop audience of selling out. Other popular performers among mainstream audiences included LL Cool J, Slick Rick, and DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince, who won hip hop's first Grammy Award in 1988.

The techniques used in hip hop changed during the 1980s as well. Most important was the DJ records such as Grandmaster Flash's "Adventures on the Wheels of Steel" (known for pioneering use of scratching, which was invented by Grandwizard Theodore in 1977) as well as electronic recordings such as "Planet Rock" by Afrika Bambaataa and Run DMC's very basic, all electronic "Sucker MC's" and "Peter Piper" which contains genuine cutting by Run DMC member Jam Master Jay. Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five released a "message rap", called "The Message", in 1982; this was one of the earliest examples of recorded hip hop with a socially aware tone. In 1984, Marley Marl accidentally caught a drum machine snare hit in the sampler; this innovation was vital in the development of electro and other later types of hip hop.

Golden age hip hop (1986–1993)

Run-D.M.C. Raising Hell (1986), one of the most important releases from the golden age of hip hop.A number of new hip hop styles and subgenres began appearing as the genre gained popularity. Run-D.M.C.'s collaboration with hard rock band Aerosmith on "Walk This Way" was an early example of rock and hip hop fusions. Also, the mid-1980s saw the rise of the first major black female group, Salt-N-Pepa, who hit the charts with singles like "The Show Stoppa" in 1985. Ice-T's seminal "6n' Da Mornin'" (1986) is one of the first nationally successful West Coast hip hop singles, and is often said to be the beginning of gangsta hip hop (along with Schoolly D, LL Cool J and N.W.A.).

In 1987, Public Enemy brought out their debut album (Yo! Bum Rush the Show) on Def Jam - one of hip hop's oldest and most important labels, and Boogie Down Productions followed up in 1988 with By All Means Necessary; both records pioneered wave of hard-edged politicized performers. The late 1980s saw a flourishing of like-minded rappers on both coasts, and Public Enemy's It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back became surprisingly successful, despite its militant and confrontational tone, appearing on both the club and rap charts, and peaking at #17 and #11, respectively. Aside from the lyrical innovations, Public Enemy's Bomb Squad production team (along with Eric B. & Rakim and Prince Paul among others) pioneered new techniques in sampling that resulted in dense, multi-layered sonic collages.

Hip hop was almost entirely unknown outside of the United States prior to the 1980s. During that decade, it began its spread to every inhabited continent and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. In the early part of the decade, breakdancing became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Germany, Japan and South Africa, where the crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade. Meanwhile, recorded hip hop was released in France (Dee Nasty's 1984 Paname City Rappin') and the Philippines (Dyords Javier's "Na Onseng Delight" and Vincent Dafalong's "Nunal"). In Puerto Rico, Vico C became the first Spanish language rapper, and his recorded work was the beginning of what became known as reggaeton.

Modern era of hip hop (1993–present)

Nas's debut album, Illmatic, had a profound impact on East Coast hip hop during the mid-1990sIn the 90s, gangsta rap became mainstream, beginning in about 1992, with the release of Dr. Dre's The Chronic. This album established a style called G Funk, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. Though G Funk was the most popular variety of hip hop in the early 90s, New York's hip hop scene did not disappear, and remained an integral part of the industry, producing such well-regarded acts as The Wu-Tang Clan and Busta Rhymes. The reemergence of New York as a growing entity in mainstream hip-hop soon spawned an inevitable confrontation between the East Coast and West Coast and their respective major labels. This sales rivalry eventually turned into a personal rivalry, aided in part by the music media. Many reporters were not aware that MC battles were an integral part of hip hop since its inception, and that, generally, little was meant by open taunts on albums and in performances. Nevertheless, the East Coast-West Coast rivalry grew, unfortunately resulting in the still unsolved deaths of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G..

Dr. Dre's The Chronic (1992) is a seminal album that redefined West Coast hip hopThough mainstream and crossover acceptance has been almost entirely limited to gangsta rap or pop rap, isolated artists with a socially aware and positive or optimistic tone or a more avantgarde approach have achieved some success. They are usually referred to in mainstream musical circles as "alternative hip hop", i.e. not gangsta or pop rap; however, this is a somewhat misleading term given that for the first decade of hip hop's existence, before gangsta rap emerged and became the most commercially successful strand of the genre, the vast majority of music produced was generally positive and optimistic. Indeed, many artists often labeled "alternative rappers", such as Common or A Tribe Called Quest, are considerably closer in content and ethos to the pre-gangsta rap braggadocio and social commentary of pioneers like Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash than many artists who are thought to be in the modern hip hop mainstream. In 1988 and 1989, albums from the Native Tongues collective like De La Soul's Three Feet High and Rising, A Tribe Called Quest's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm and the Jungle Brothers' Straight Out the Jungle are usually considered the first alternative rap albums, with jazz-based samples and quirky, insightful lyrics covering a diverse range of topics (see jazz rap) and strongly influenced by the Afrocentric messages of Bambaataa's Zulu Nation. This period, between 1988 and 1992, when the Native Tongues (together with other crews such as Pete Rock and CL Smooth) were at their creative peak, is considered the golden age of hip hop.

The Low End Theory, a 1991 LP by alternative hip hop act A Tribe Called Quest.[edit]
Later in the 1990s, record labels based out of Atlanta, St. Louis and New Orleans gained fame for their local scenes. By the end of the decade, especially with the success of Eminem, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and nearly all American pop songs had a major hip hop component. In the 90s and into the following decade, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music; neo soul, for example, combined hip hop and soul music and produced some major stars in the middle of the decade, while in the Dominican Republic, a recording by Santi Y Sus Duendes and Lisa M became the first single of merenrap, a fusion of hip hop and merengue. In South Africa, pioneering crew Black Noise began rapping in 1989, provoking a ban by the apartheid-era government, which lasted until 1993. Later, the country produced its own distinctive style in the house fusion kwela. Elsewhere in Africa, Senegalese mbalax fusions continued to grow in popularity, while Tanzanian Bongo Flava crews like X-Plastaz combined hip hop with taarab, filmi and other styles.

In Europe, hip hop was the domain of both ethnic nationals and immigrants. Germany, for example, produced the well-known Die Fantastischen Vier as well as several Turkish performers like the controversial Cartel. Similarly, France has produced a number of native-born stars, such as IAM and the Breton crew Manau, though the most famous French rapper is probably the Senegalese-born MC Solaar. Swedish hip hop emerged in the mid 1980s and by the early 1990s a lot of 'ethnic Swedish acts' like Looptroop, 'immigrant acts' like The Latin Kings and mixed acts like Infinite Mass switched from English to rapping in "Rinkeby Swedish", a pidgin language of sorts, when they were making records for the domestic market. The Netherlands' most famous rappers are The Osdorp Posse, an all-white crew from Amsterdam, and The Postmen, from Cape Verde and Suriname. Italy found its own rappers, including Jovanotti and Articolo 31, grow nationally renowned, while the Polish scene began in earnest early in the decade with the rise of PM Cool Lee. In Romania, B.U.G. Mafia came out of Bucharest's Pantelimon neighborhood, and their brand of gangsta rap underlines the parallels between life in Romania's Communist-era apartment blocks and in the housing projects of America's ghettos. Israel's hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars emerging from both sides of the Palestinian (Tamer Nafer) and Jewish (Subliminal) divide; though some, like Mook E., preached peace and tolerance, others expressed nationalist and violent sentiments.

North of the U.S. border, in Canada, hip hop became popular thanks to home-grown rap artist Maestro Fresh Wes in the late 1980's. His single, "Let Your Backbone slide", dominated the charts for over a year. In the early 90's, more artists such as Michee Mee and The Rascalz established themselves in the growing Canadian urban music scene, primarily located in the diverse backdrop of Toronto and Vancouver. More recently, rappers such as Choclair, Saukrates, Kardinal Offishall, Hugh "MC Son" Ryan, Black Jays, Jelleestone and K-OS have become household names in the Canadian urban music scene, although they have failed to earn mainstream recognition south of the border in the U.S. market.

In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the Philippines, led by Michael V., Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane, and in Japan, where underground rappers had previously found a limited audience, and popular teen idols brought a style called J-rap to the top of the charts in the middle of the 90s.

Latinos had played an integral role in the early development of hip hop, and the style had spread to parts of Latin America, such as Cuba, early in its history. In Mexico, popular hip hop began with the success of Calo in the early 90s. Later in the decade, with Latin rap groups like Cypress Hill on the American charts, Mexican rap rock groups, such as Control Machete, rose to prominence in their native land. An annual Cuban hip hop concert held at Alamar in Havana helped to popularize Cuban hip hop, beginning in 1995. Hip hop grew steadily more popular in Cuba, due to official governmental support for musicians.

The commercial success of The Notorious B.I.G.'s Ready to Die (1994) was instrumental in revitilizing the East Coast hip hop scene.[edit]
Social impact
Hip hop music is a part of hip hop, a cultural movement that includes the activities of breakdancing and graffiti art, as well as associated slang, fashion and other elements. The popularity of music has helped to popularize hip hop culture, both in the United States and, to a lesser degree, abroad.

Contemporary hip hop fashion includes the wearing of baggy jeans slung low around the waist, gold or platinum chains and boots or a fresh pair of kicks, and bandanas or doo rags tied around the head often worn with a baseball cap on top) ; these elements are more typical of men than women. In addition, there are and have been more transitory fads associated with hip hop, such as rolling up one leg of one's pants, jogging suits and sweatshirts. Other hip hop fashions that have long since died out include the late-1980s trend for African-influenced clothing styles in accordance with the Afrocentric stylings of much hip hop music of the time (from bands such as X-Clan), and the "high top fade" hairstyle popularized by Will Smith (The Fresh Prince) and Christopher "Kid" Reid of Kid 'n Play, among others. Though hip hop fashion was associated almost exclusively with African Americans in urban areas in the 1970s and 80s, it has since spread to mainstream listeners throughout the world.

Since the late nineties and especially since the turn of the century, many hip hop songs - and indeed probably the majority of mainstream hip hop songs - have focused on the "bling bling" lifestyle, which is a focus on expensive jewelry, cars and clothing that symbolize wealth and status. "Bling bling" has its roots in the enormously commercially successful late-to-mid nineties work (specifically, music videos) of Puff Daddy and Bad Boy Records as well as Master P's No Limit Records. However, the term was coined in 1999 (see 1999 in music) by Cash Money Records artist B.G. on his single Bling Bling, and the Cash Money roster were perhaps the epitome of the "bling bling" lifestyle and attitude. Though many rappers, mostly gangsta rappers, unapologetically pursue and celebrate bling bling, others, mostly artists outside of the hip hop mainstream, have expressly criticized the idealized pursuit of bling bling as being materialistic.

All Eyez on Me (1996) was the most successful album of West Coast rapper 2Pac's career.The widespread success of hip hop - specifically gangsta rap - has also had a significant social impact on the demeanor of modern youth. The sometimes egotistic and degenerate attitudes often portrayed in the lyrics and videos of certain hip hop artists have shown negative effects on some of their idolizing fans. While the attitudes of specific artists certainly do not represent the rest of the hip hop community, and the effects of lyrical content on youths are debatable, very often are youths adopting the much glamourized "gangsta" persona while not being members of any gang. Often these personas incite anti-social behavior such as peer harassment, neglect towards education, rejection of authority, and petty crimes such as vandalism. While the majority of listeners are able to distinguish entertainment from lessons in social conduct, an evident pseudo-gangsta sub-culture has risen amongst North American youth.

Because hip hop music almost always puts an emphasis on hyper-masculinity, its lyrics often reflect a homophobic mindset. There has been little to no room in hip hop music for openly gay or lesbian artists. It is often suspected that there are a great number of gay or lesbian hip hop musicians who do not come out of the closet for fear of the decline of their career. Rumours of such have involved hip hop artists such as Queen Latifah, Da Brat, and several others. In 2003 the first openly gay hip hop and rap artist, Caushun, was signed to a major label; his record and career were not successful.

As with most insular musical-cultural movements such as jazz and the hippie counterculture of the 60s, hip hop has a distinctive slang, that includes words like yo, flow and phat. Due to hip hop's extraordinary commercial success in the late nineties and early 21st century, many of these words have been assimilated into many different dialects across America and the world and even to non-hip hop fans (the word dis for example is remarkably prolific). There are also words like homie which predate hip hop but are often associated with it because of the close connection between recorded hip hop and the dialect used by many performers, African American Vernacular English. Sometimes, terms like what the dilly, yo are popularized by a single song (in this case, "Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See" by Busta Rhymes) and are only used briefly. Of special importance is the rule-based slang of Snoop Dogg, who adds -izz to the middle of words so that shit becomes shizznit (the addition of the n occurs occasionally as well). This practice, with origins in Frankie Smith's non-sensical language from his 1982 single "Double Dutch Bus," has spread to even non-hip hop fans, who may be unaware of its derivation.

Musical impact

Aside from hip hop's great popularity, the genre has had an impact on most varieties of popular music. There are performers that combine either hip hop beats or rapping with rock and roll, heavy metal, punk rock, merengue, salsa, cumbia, funk, jazz, house, taarab, reggae, highlife, mbalax and soul. Teen pop singers and boy bands like the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, Christina Aguilera, Mariah Carey and Britney Spears utilize hip hop beats in many of their most popular singles.

Hip hop has had an especially close relationship with soul music since the early 1990s. Indeed, today there is little recorded soul that does not feature some element of hip hop. This fusion, called nu soul, can be traced back to the late 1980s New Jack Swing groups, though it did not reach its modern form until the rise of performers like Mary J. Blige. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the hip hop influence grew more prominent in singers like D'Angelo, Lauryn Hill, Jill Scott and Alicia Keys.

During the 80's, popular acts like Run-D.M.C. used both hard rock and hip hop, especially in their genre-crossing, unprecedented smash hit "Walk This Way", performed with Aerosmith. Other performers, like Ice-T and his band Body Count used hip hop, punk rock and metal, though the first bands to combine metal with rap vocal techniques are said to be Anthrax and Pantera (others early adopters include Faith No More, Rage Against The Machine and Red Hot Chili Peppers). By the end of the 90s, rap-metal grew both more popular and more derided by fans of both genres, with the rise of bands like Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit and KoЯn, who were called nu metal.

In Latin America, rapping was already known in the 1980s, in the form of toasting, a part of Jamaican ragga music. Rapped lyrics were already a part of soca music, for example. The growth of hip hop in the area, however, led to more pronounced fusions like reggaeton and timba. Similarly, in Africa, rapping-like vocals (such as Senegalese tassou) were already a part of popular music, and hip hop was easily adapted to popular styles like taarab and mbalax.

Also, one cannot underestimate the influence the genre had over the numerous styles of Electronic Music, mostly in the UK. Hip-Hop's influence is well noticed in genres such as Jungle, UK Garage, Grime and more.

Censorship issues

Hip hop has probably encountered more problems with censorship than any other form of popular music in recent years, due to the use of sexually and violently explicit lyrics. The pervasive use of curse words in many songs has created challenges in the broadcast of such material both on television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio. As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored form, with offending language blanked out of the soundtrack (though usually leaving the backing music intact). The result – which quite often renders the remaining lyrics unintelligible – has become almost as widely identified with the genre as any other aspect of the music, and has been parodied in films such as Austin Powers in Goldmember, in which a character – performing in a parody of a hip-hop music video – performs an entire verse that is blanked out.


Hip hop has some major American magazines devoted to it, most famously including The Source, XXL and Vibe. For a long time, BET was the only television channel likely to play much hip hop, but in recent years, the mainstream channels VH1 and MTV have played hip hop more than any other style. Many individual cities have produced their own local hip hop newsletters, while hip hop magazines with national distribution are found in a few other countries.

Sunday, February 05, 2006

Now A Days Classical Musics.

Classic rock

Classic rock was originally conceived as a radio station programming format which evolved from the album oriented rock (AOR) format in the mid-1980s. In the United States, this rock music format now features a limited playlist of songs ranging from late 1960s through today with more emphasis on the earlier hits by artists associated with the loosely-defined "classic rock era".

The term "classic rock" has retroactively been applied to these artists and their music, to the point that some now consider "classic rock" to be a musical genre unto itself.

1 Origins of classic rock radio
2 Key artists and albums
3 Classic Hits format
4 Symphonic "classic rock"

Origins of classic rock radio
The origins of the classic rock radio format can be traced back to The Beatles' groundbreaking album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which would forever change several courses of the rock and roll format, especially with the slow rise of FM broadcasting, even though a majority of people were still listening to AM radio. Since Sgt. Pepper did not spawn any singles, both AM and FM stations began to play select tracks from the album in an attempt to retain listeners. Soon both stations and artists realized that album cuts rather than Top 40-oriented singles could be a major source of radio airplay and artist visibility.

Taken to the furthest level, this created what would be called progressive rock radio in the late 1960s and 1970s. This format was associated with elements of freeform radio, where disc jockeys controlled what was played. Soon a more commercially-oriented variant called Album Oriented Rock (AOR), or "album rock", emerged in the mid- and late 1970s. This format concentrated on album cuts as well, but on a more structured, playlist-oriented basis.

AOR would continue to be popular in the 1970s and early 1980s, but by the end of the 1980s, as "albums" had been supplanted by compact discs and as station playlists largely stopped keeping up with developing musical trends (including new wave music), "album rock" evolved into "classic rock" on many of these FM radio stations.

The first station to switch to an all-old rock format and call itself "classic rock" on the air was WYSP-FM in Philadelphia in January 1981. Program director/WYSP midday personality Dick Hungate met with station consultant Lee Abrams and together they decided to counter then-dominant (and traditionally-programmed) Philly album rockers WMMR and WIOQ with a songlist of 100% already-established and popular hits and older album tracks. After first considering the on-air describers "vintage" and "timeless", Hungate and Abrams settled on the word "classic". Hungate had to come up with the on-air presentation, or "format" in which songs were picked and then divided up according to age or perceived appeal/strength. His work at WMMR as midday man and music director two years earlier (under PD Jeff Pollack, who would go on to become an influential rock radio consultant with Pollack Media Group) helped Hungate by gut feel create the universe of appropriate classic tracks. From there, the format spread to KQRS-FM in Minneapolis and later to the rest of the country.

Classic rock is similar to oldies radio in that the format is based upon music of the past, hence the playlist and artists featured are relatively stable in comparison to Top 40 or other contemporary formats which are based primarily on current releases. However, various bands and songs will come in and out of style on classic rock radio, and regional favorites may be featured in a particular market. Additionally, in the process of jockeying for position and listener share in competetive markets, stations will often add songs and artists only marginally associated with the classic rock era, and some stations combine the classic rock format with other formats, including modern rock in an attempt to increase popularity. The hybrid of classic rock and modern rock is also referred to as active rock.

Key artists and albums
The core albums, artists, and songs most often represented in classic rock radio represent a subset of the albums and artists that were actually popular during the so-called "classic rock era". The most enduring classic rock songs and artists have proven to appeal to new generations of listeners as well as older listeners who knew the music when it originally appeared.

British hard rock and progressive rock bands make up a central pillar of classic rock artists; significant among these are Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, The Kinks, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Pink Floyd, Cream, and Queen. Many different songs from these acts are likely to appear on the playlists of classic rock stations. Certain American rock artists are also classic rock mainstays, including The Doors, the Eagles, Jimi Hendrix, and CCR. Arena rock bands (such as Styx, Boston, Journey, and Supertramp) also often appear on classic rock stations. In many areas, Southern rock, notably that of Lynyrd Skynyrd, .38 Special and The Allman Brothers Band, forms a significant subset of classic rock playlists as well.

Many other bands may appear occasionally on classic rock stations; however, this presence may be limited to a few familiar songs. For example, while the band Steppenwolf recorded over a dozen studio albums, only two of their songs ("Born to Be Wild" and "Magic Carpet Ride") are likely to be heard within the classic rock format.

Concept albums indirectly led to the album-rock format and remain a major component of classic rock. Notable are the four Pink Floyd concept albums, including The Wall and Dark Side of the Moon, as well as The Who's two major rock operas: Tommy and Quadrophenia. The Who's 1971 album Who's Next is one of the most often-played classic rock albums of all time.

Artists whose musical output spanned the 1960s and 1970s, including Fleetwood Mac and The Rolling Stones form something of a special case: a few later songs from these acts (such as "Go Your Own Way" and "The Chain" by Fleetwood Mac and "Start Me Up" by the Stones) are staples of classic rock radio, while the older songs from these groups are seldom heard on the format, gravitating instead to oldies radio, along with nearly any other material recorded prior to around 1967.

Some classic rock playlists also include some of the hard-rock/heavy metal bands of the 1980s such as AC/DC,Guns N' Roses and Van Halen as classic rock; again, particular songs or musical eras from these acts may be more conducive to the format than others, and nearly every station fine-tunes its playlist by adding or deleting songs and artists to differentiate itself from competing stations. Similarly, more modern material in the same style is seldom included unless it is by a recognized classic rock artist; such music often gravitates to top 40, modern rock, or adult album alternative stations.

Classic rock radio artists are almost exclusively white (Jimi Hendrix being the primary exception) and predominantly male; little of the diverse funk, disco, soul, blues, or singer-songwriter styles that co-existed with rock music in the original era, and that may have been played contemporaneously on AOR predecessors, survives in the classic rock format.

An example of one radio station's classic rock playlist may be found at KHKK, and an example of another station's top classic rock songs of all time is also illuminating.

Classic Hits format
A variation on the classic rock theme is classic hits, which provides most of the playlist of classic rock with the addition of contemporaneous R&B and pop hits as well, striking a balance between the mostly '70s-focused classic rock genre and the more broad-based oldies format.

Symphonic "classic rock"
Classic rock is also a term used to mean a fusion of classical and rock music, or more usually, rock music arranged for and played by a symphony orchestra and is consequently also called symphonic rock. The style was popularised by a series of albums called Classic Rock, Classic Rock 2, etc. performed by the London Symphony Orchestra in the 1970s. The resulting easy listening albums sold well and were popular until the early 1980s, when the form seemed to fall out of favour with the public. The LSO even scored a hit single with a medley of classic rock called Hooked on Classics, in 1981, though whereas the earlier albums were "classical" arrangements of hits by such artists as the Rolling Stones, The Beatles, Harry Nilsson and others, Hooked on Classics took the opposite tack—arranging a series of well-known classical pieces into a medley with a common tempo and adding a rock drumming track. The medley form was briefly popular around that time due to artists such as Stars on 45.

There have also been a number of popular songs based on classical music; see List of popular songs based on classical music

Article About Country music.


Stylistic origins: Appalachian folk music, blues, spirituals and Anglo-Celtic music
Cultural origins: early 20th century Appalachia, esp. Tennessee, Virginia, and Kentucky
Typical instruments: Guitar - Steel guitar - Dobro - Harmonica - Bass - Fiddle - Drums - Mandolin - Banjo
Mainstream popularity: Much, worldwide, especially the Nashville Sound
Derivative forms: Bluegrass
Bakersfield Sound - Bluegrass - Close harmony - Country folk - Honky tonk - Jug band - Lubbock Sound - Nashville Sound - Neotraditional Country - Outlaw country - Red Dirt - Texas Country
Fusion genres
Alternative country - Country rock - Psychobilly - Deathcountry - Rockabilly - Country-rap - Country pop
Regional scenes
Other topics
Musicians - List of years in Country Music
Country music, also called country and western music or country-western, is an amalgam of popular musical forms developed in the Southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, Celtic Music, Blues, Gospel music, and Old-time music.

However, country music is actually a catch-all category that embraces several different genres of music: Nashville sound (the pop-like music very popular in the 1960s); bluegrass, a fast mandolin, banjo and fiddle-based music popularized by Bill Monroe and by the Foggy Mountain Boys; Western which encompasses traditional Western ballads and Hollywood Cowboy Music, Western swing, a sophisticated dance music popularized by Bob Wills; Bakersfield sound (popularized by Buck Owens and Merle Haggard); Outlaw country; Cajun; Zydeco; gospel; oldtime (generally pre-1930 folk music); honky tonk; Appalachian; rockabilly; neotraditional country and jug band.

Each style is unique in its execution, its use of rhythms, and its chord structures, though many songs have been adapted to the different country styles. One example is the tune Milk Cow Blues, an early blues tune by Kokomo Arnold that has been performed in a wide variety of country styles by everyone from Aerosmith to Bob Wills to Willie Nelson, George Strait to Ricky Nelson and Elvis Presley.

Vernon Dalhart was the first country singer to have a nationwide hit (May 1924, with "The Wreck of Old '97") (see External Links below). Other important early recording artists were Riley Puckett, Don Richardson, Fiddling John Carson, Ernest Stoneman, Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers, and The Skillet Lickers.

Some trace the origins of modern country music to two seminal influences and a remarkable coincidence. Jimmie Rodgers and the Carter Family are widely considered to be the founders of country music, and their songs were first captured at an historic recording session in Bristol, Tennessee on August 1, 1927, where Ralph Peer was the talent scout and sound recordist.

It is possible to categorize many country singers as being either from the Jimmie Rodgers strand or the Carter Family strand of country music.

1 Jimmie Rodgers' influence
1.1 Hank Williams
2 The Carter Family's influence
2.1 Bluegrass
3 Other influences
4 The Nashville sound
4.1 Reaction to the Nashville sound
5 Country music developments
6 Samples
7 Further reading
7.1 Early innovators
7.2 The Golden Age
7.3 Country rock
7.4 Contemporary Country Stars 1980-2005
7.5 Television and radio shows of note
8 See also
9 External links

Jimmie Rodgers' influence
Jimmie Rodgers' gift to country music was country folk. Building on the traditional ballads and musical influences of the South, Jimmie wrote and sang songs that ordinary people could relate to. He took the experiences of his own life in the Meridian, Mississippi, area and those of the people he met on the railroad, in bars and on the streets to create his lyrics. He used the musical influences of the traditional ballads and the folk to create his tunes. A annual festival has been held in Meridian for over 30 years.

Pathos, humor, women, whiskey, murder, death, disease and destitution are all present in his lyrics and these themes have been carried forward and developed by his followers. People like Hank Williams, Merle Haggard, Waylon Jennings, George Jones, Townes van Zandt, Kris Kristofferson and Johnny Cash have also suffered, and shared their suffering, bringing added dimensions to those themes. It would be fair to say that Jimmie Rodgers sang about life and death from a male perspective, and this viewpoint has dominated some areas of country music. It would also be fair to credit his influence for the development of honky tonk, rockabilly and the Bakersfield sound.

Hank Williams
Jimmie Rodgers is a major foundation stone in the structure of country music, but the most influential artist from the Jimmie Rodgers strand is undoubtedly Hank Williams, Sr. In his short career (he was only 29 when he died), he dominated the country scene and his songs have been covered by practically every other country artist, male and female. Some have even included him in their compositions (for example, Waylon Jennings and Alan Jackson). Hank had two personas: as Hank Williams he was a singer-songwriter and entertainer; as "Luke the Drifter", he was a songwriting crusader. The complexity of his character was reflected in the introspective songs he wrote about heartbreak, happiness and love (e.g., "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry"), and the more upbeat numbers about Cajun food ("Jambalaya") or cigar store Indians ("Kaw-Liga"). He took the music to a different level and a wider audience.

Both Hank Williams, Jr. and his son Hank Williams III have been innovators within country music as well, Hank Jr. leading towards rock fusion and "outlaw country", and Hank III going much further in reaching out to death metal and psychobilly soul

The Carter Family's influence
The other Ralph Peer discovery, the Carter family, consisted of A.P. Carter, his wife Sara and their sister-in-law Maybelle. They built a long recording career based on the sonorous bass of A.P., the beautiful singing of Sara and the unique guitar playing of Maybelle. A.P.'s main contribution was the collection of songs and ballads that he picked up in his expeditions into the hill country around their home in Maces Springs, Virginia. In addition, being a man, he made it possible for Sara and Maybelle to perform without stigma at that time. These two women were the musical talent. They arranged the songs that A.P. collected and wrote their own songs. They were the precursors of a line of talented female country singers like Kitty Wells, Patsy Cline, Loretta Lynn, Skeeter Davis, Tammy Wynette, Dolly Parton and June Carter Cash, the daughter of Maybelle and the wife of Johnny Cash.

Bluegrass carries on the tradition of the old String Band Music and was invented, in its pure form, by Bill Monroe. The name "Bluegrass" was simply taken from Monroe's band, the "Bluegrass Boys". The first recording in the classic line-up was made in 1945: Bill Monroe on Mandolin and Vocals, Lester Flatt on Guitar and Vocals, Earl Scruggs on 5-String Banjo, Chubby Wise on Fiddle and Cedric Rainwater on Upright Bass. This band set the standard for all bluegrass bands to follow, most of the famous early Bluegrass musicians were one-time band members of the Bluegrass Boys, like Lester Flatt & Earl Scruggs, Jimmy Martin and Del McCoury, or played with Monroe occasionally, like Sonny Osborne, The Stanley Brothers and Don Reno. Monroe also influenced people like Ricky Skaggs, Alison Krauss and Rhonda Vincent, who carry on the folk and ballad tradition in the bluegrass style.

Other influences
Country music has had only a handful of Black stars Charley Pride and Deford Bailey being the most notable. Pride endured much open racism early in his career with some radio programmers refusing to play a "nigger". Many TV audiences were shocked to realize that the songs they enjoyed were performed by a black man. Pride became the second black member of the Grand Ole Opry in 1993 (he had declined an invitation to join in 1968). He is considered a major influence on traditionalists today. Country music has also influenced the work of many black musicians such as Ray Charles, Keb' Mo' and Cowboy Troy.

The Nashville sound
During the 1960s, country music became a multimillion-dollar industry centered on Nashville, Tennessee. Under the direction of Chet Atkins, the Nashville sound brought country music to a diverse audience. Although country music has great stylistic diversity, this diversity was strangled somewhat by the formulaic approach of the record producers like Chet Atkins. They played safe to protect sales. Even today the variety of country music is not usually well reflected in radio airplay and the popular perception of country music is still influenced by the maudlin ballads and whining steel guitars that many people still associate with the genre.

Reaction to the Nashville sound
The "vanilla"-flavored sounds that emanated from Nashville under the influence of Chet Atkins and his fellow producers led to a reaction among musicians outside Nashville, who saw that there was more to the genre than "the same old tunes, fiddle and guitar..." (Waylon Jennings).

California produced the Bakersfield sound, promoted by Buck Owens and Merle Haggard and based on the work of the legendary Maddox Brothers and Rose, whose wild eclectic mix of old time country, hillbilly swing and gospel in the 1940s and 1950s was a feature of honky-tonks and dance halls in the state.

Texas produced rebels like Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Butch Hancock, Jerry Jeff Walker and others who bucked the Nashville system and created outlaw country.

Within Nashville in the 1980s, Randy Travis, Ricky Skaggs and others brought a return to the traditional values. Their musicianship, songwriting and producing skills helped to revive the genre momentarily. However, even they, and such long-time greats as Jones, Cash, and Haggard, fell from popularity as the record companies again imposed their formulas and refused to promote established artists. Capitol Records made an almost wholesale clearance of their country artists in the 1960s.

Country music developments
The two strands of country music have continued to develop since 1990s. The Jimmie Rodgers influence can be seen in a pronounced "working man" image promoted by singers like Brooks & Dunn and Garth Brooks. On the Carter Family side, singers like Iris Dement and Nanci Griffith have written on more traditional "folk" themes, albeit with a contemporary point of view.

In the 1990s a new form of country music emerged, called by some alternative country, or "insurgent country". Performed by generally younger musicians and inspired by traditional country performers and the country reactionaries, it shunned the Nashville-dominated sound of mainstream country and borrowed more from punk and rock groups than the watered-down, pop-oriented sound of Nashville.

There are at least three U. S. cable networks devoted to the genre: CMT (owned by Viacom), VH-1 Country (also owned by Viacom), and GAC (owned by The E. W. Scripps Company).

Monday, January 23, 2006

Underground Music

Time to Panic with underground music

Those kids at Pop Life never stop. First they throw things up a bit by moving to its original space now known as The District. And when things start to slow down, they throw us for a loop and start a new party. This time, it's appropriately called Panic, a monthly party dedicated to the under-appreciated underground music scene at Gigi's Bistro in the Design District. The second installment is 11 p.m. Jan. 20 and features Pop Life's spin doctor and founder Ray Milian on the turntables. You can Panic if you're 18 or older and enjoy free hors d'oeuvres all night long.
You can also schlep down to Homestead where several of Miami's hottest chefs are kicking off a monthly dinner party on a farm to raise money for small Louisiana farms impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Afterglo chef Michael Schwartz and Tantra chef Sandee Birdsong joined forces with Gabriella Marewski of Paradise Farms, an Eden of organic ingredients, to create Dinner in Paradise, a five course chow-fest paired with organic wines. The first one is Sunday. There's a farm tour at 5 and dinner at 6. The cost is $150 per person. Five more dinners will take place in the coming months. We love the idea and it reminds us of one of those spaghetti sauce ads in which a big group is eating deelish food in a vineyard, only this one is more farmer chic than Tuscan. For more info on the dinners, contact Afterglo.
Another massive fundraiser is scheduled at Bayfront Park downtown from 6:30 to midnight Saturday. Vanessa Williams, Quincy Jones and Placido Domingo are among the 1,600 people who will be at this ''intimate'' sit-down dinner catered by Touch restaurant chef Sean Brasel. Bayfront will be transformed into a swank tent city with tents covering an area the size of five football fields to raise funds for the National Foundation for Advancement in the Arts. New World Symphony founder and conductor Michael Tilson Thomas will receive an award and the symphony will perform in honor of the organization's 25th anniversary.
Going back in time is Ocean Drive's landmark Park Central Hotel, which is celebrating its 18th anniversary tonight with the Goldman family who restored the hotel to its original Deco glory back in 1987 with a big invitation-only party and an online opportunity to book a room for just $1 a night -- the rock bottom price rooms went for back in 1937. Today rates go from $110-$275. Monthly winners of the rollback rate will be chosen all year via a drawing which can be entered at Also proving that Friday the 13th is an auspicious date is Vino Miami, which is throwing its official grand opening tonight and combining it with a delectable California Zinfandel and chocolates tasting from 8-9:30 p.m. followed by a big wine-swilling party. Vino is also kicking off a real happy hour from 5-7 p.m. Tuesday through Friday with $5 glasses of boutique wines and food specials. Perhaps when you're there you can toast to the end of a nocturnal era, so to speak.

After three years -- an era in these parts -- Zack Bush and Erica Freshman have fled Skybar on Thursdays to join forces with uber-promoter Michael Capponi at the Hotel Victor on the same night. If you can't beat 'em, then join all the other party animals at PawPurrAzzi, a fundraiser benefiting the Humane Society of Greater Miami/Adopt A Pet Thursday at The Village of Merrick Park from 7-10 p.m., showcasing an exhibition by photogs Carlos Baez and Carl Juste featuring celebrities with their pets. Among the celebs featured are Barry Gibb, Romero Britto, Jason Taylor, Dr. Arthur Agatston, Donald Pliner and more. Even nonfamous dogs are welcome to the event -- your dog may snag a sugar daddy here! Cocktails will be provided by Dewar's 12, catering by Thierry's Catering and music will be provided by Tracy Young. Silent auction items include New World Symphony tickets and a Royal Caribbean Cruise to the Galapagos Islands. Tickets are $100 with all proceeds going to the Humane Society /Adopt A Pet.
South Beach wunderkind Alan Roth's birthday bash is at 8 p.m. Sunday at the Raleigh hosted by Tommy Pooch, R&B performer Craig David and Jennifer Halegua. Last year, David serenaded Roth, so we can't wait to see/hear what he does next. They never stop, do they?
Lesley Abravanel's Velvet Underground column runs weekly in Weekend. Lesley will answer your questions about Miami nightlife -- whenever she wakes up. Go to and click on Q&A.

Music in Malaysia

Music of Malaysia

Malaysian music is influenced by neighboring Indonesian and Thai forms, as well as Portuguese, Filipino and Chinese styles (Munan, 175).

The Malays of Kelantan and Terengganu are culturally linked to peoples from the South China Sea area, and are quite different from the West Coast of Malaya. The martial art of silat, while essentially still important as a branch of the self defence form, is also popular among the Malays as an art presentation. Similar to t'ai chi, though of independent origin, it is a mix of martial arts, dance and music typically accompanied by gongs, drums and Indian oboes.

The natives of the Malay Peninsula played in small ensembles called kertok, which is swift and rhythmic xylophone music. Ghazals from Arabia are popular in the markets and malls of Kuala Lumpur and Johor, and stars like Kamariah Noor are very successful.

In Malacca, ronggeng is the dominant form of folk music. It played with a violin, drums, button accordion and a gong.

Arabic-derived zapin music and dance is popular throughout Malaysia, and is usually accompanied by a gambus and some drums. Another style, Dondang Sayang is slow and intense; it mixes influences from China, India, Arabs and Portugal with traditional elements.

1 Pop music
2 Underground music
2.1 Terengganu Punk: The Origins of Malaysian Punk Rock
3 Chinese Music
4 Indian Music
5 Jazz,Classical & World Music

Pop music

Malaysia's pop music scene developed from traditional asli (pure) music popularized in the 1920s and 1930s by Bangsawan troupes. These troupes are in fact a type of Malay opera influenced by Indian opera at first known as Wayang Pasir (Persia) which was started by rich Persians residing in India. They portrayed stories from diverse groups such as Indian, Western, Islamic, Chinese, Indonesian and Malay. Music, dance, acting with costumes are used in performance depending on the stories told. The musicians were mostly local Malay, Pilipinos and Guanis (descendents from Gua in India).

One of the earliest modern Malay pop songs was "Tudung Periok", sung by Momo Latif, who recorded the song as early as 1930. In the 1950s P.Ramlee became the most popular Malay singer and composer with a range of slow ballads such as "Azizah", "Dendang Perantau" and the evergreen "Di Mana Kan Ku Cari Ganti".

In the 1960s, western-influenced Pop Yeh-yeh musicians came to the forefront. The Pop Yeh-yeh genre was popular in Malaysia, Singapore, dan Brunei in the 1960s. Pop Yeh-yeh ruled the Malay music scene from 1965 to 1971. The music and fashion of The Beatles and other British rock and roll bands during the 1960s were a strong influence of the pop yeh-yeh bands and also generally influenced the Malay music industry of that period. In fact, the term "pop yeh-yeh" was taken from a line from the popular Beatles song, "She Loves You" (“she loves you, yeah-yeah-yeah”.)

The first local song in the Pop Yeh-yeh vein was a song called "Suzanna", sung by M Osman in 1964. During the height of the pop yeh-yeh craze, a lot of the bands that were formed tried their best to mimic The Beatles in their look, songwriting and performance style. Usually the bands (also referred to as "kumpulan gitar rancak" - "rhythmic guitar bands" – or its shortened term "kugiran") consists of four members who sings on top of handling the basic four musical instruments (two electric guitars, electric bass and drums). Most of the bands were formed in Singapore but also in Malaysia. The southern state of Johore was the hub of activity for these bands.

The formation and development of these kugiran's encouraged the establishment and existence of various recording companies in Singapore in the 1960s and a lot of these songs were recorded on vinyl and sold well commercially. Some of the singers who made their name during that period include A Ramlie, Jeffrydin, Adnan Othman, J Kamisah, Ahmad Jais, M Osman, Hussien Ismail, A Halim, S Jibeng and L Ramlie.Other popular rock and pop bands of the period include The Rhythm Boys, The Siglap Five and The Hooks which featured A Romzi as their lead vocalist (they scored a hit with the song "Dendang Remaja").

The golden age of pop yeh-yeh started to dwindle in 1971. Since the fall of the popularity of pop yeh-yeh, the center of the Malay music industry shifted up north from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. A lot of compoers, songwriter, lyricists, singers, and producers started to gain foothold not only in Kuala Lumpur but also in other cities including Johor Bahru and Ipoh to grab the opportunity of the emerging and rapidly changing Malay music industry.

DJ Dave, Hail Amir and Uji Rashid introduced Hindustani-influenced music in the 1970s. Between the late 1970s and mid 1980s, the market for local recordings and artiste was in big demand, bands and musicians performing in clubs and pubs were contracted to record. This was the time when non Malay artistes, bands and business man ventured into the Malay music industry. Bands like Alley Cats, Discovery, Carefree and Chendrawasih took the lead to modernize Malaysian Pop music; solo singers like Sudirman, Sharifah Aini further push the music to its peak.

Before the mid 1980’s another genre of music appeared. This time it was slow rock, heavy metal, hard rock and the blues. Popular bands from the west like Scorpions, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Def Leppard were some of the major influences for these Malaysian bands. M. Nasir a Singaporean played a leading role in shaping rock music in Malaysia as a song writer and producer for a period of almost ten years. He produced local rock bands like Search and Wings and took them to their highest level of Malaysian rock music. Piracy in the form of duplicating cassettes and CDs became rampant and uncontrollable around this period as sales of these items soar which was supported by the country’s wave of economic success.

Between the late 80’s and early 90’s, R&B and Pop music became the focus of the urban youngsters. This music was cosmopolitan and catered to a professional and educated crowd. Sheila Majid a singer with a lovely mellow voice together with a bunch of creative musicians like Mac Chew and Jenny Chin both influenced by R&B, fusion and jazz achieved their dreams and set a new direction for many Malaysian R&B artistes to come. In the mid 1990s, KRU a vocal group comprised of three brothers among others developed Malay rap and hip-hop.

In 1991, an environmental album recorded by Zainal Abidin, songs written by Mukhlis Nor and produced by Roslan Aziz was released, this was received very positively by the public and the international music scene especially in Asia. Around this time nasyid pop music which was a form of Islamic religious which utilized a vocal group and acompaniment of only percussions music entered the market. Developed by vocal groups like Raihan, Rabbani and Brothers this music got a lot of support from the countryside and religious fans.

In 1996 a school girl by the name of Siti Nurhaliza from a rural town Termeloh in the state of Pahang released an album produced by a talented pop music producer name Adnan Abu Hassan. This album of Malay Pop genre was a huge success. She included different genres such as Malay pop, R&B and Malay Traditional music in her later albums with much success. This singer is now a singing sensation in the country.

The Malaysian underground music scene (also known as the Malaysian independent or urban music scene, with the term "urban" introduced only in the late 90s) is an established localized underground culture within Malaysia. This is as opposed to mainstream music, which usually, in the Malaysian context refers to artists with strong ties or are engaged in direct contract with fairly large recording companies, giving them a more commercial and popular image. These groups normally promote themselves by performing at underground clubs or places that require their music.

Artists and musicians who are involved in the Malaysian underground scene were typically guitar-driven bands with inclination towards heavy metal, thrash metal, speed metal and death metal sub genre of rock music although there are a number of acts with differing musical influences such as hip-hop, electronica and dance music. The current rise of singer-songwriters in the acoustic or folk vein in the underground scene (also oft referred to as the "independent circuit") represents the rising diversity in the problematised definition of "underground music". The first wave of singer-songwriters who have established and gained reputation in this genre include Pete Teo, Rafique Rashid, Meor Aziddin Yusof and Kit Leee. The 'new generation' singer-songwriters include Shelley Leong, Azmyl Yunor, Jerome Kugan, Shanon Shah, Mei Chern and Tan Sei Hon.

Most of these musicians are independent, entirely or partially DIY-driven groups or bands who emphasize on creating, sharing and experiencing music, together and collectively. Most recordings they produced are usually funded by themselves or by recording companies. Because of their creative differences with major recording companies these artistes normally wants to have their ideas and creativity embedded into their music. They also tend to play both the roles of performers and organisers and generally receive little airplay despite encouraging crowd support.

By the late 1990’s with the internet easily available, downloading was the easiest and cheapest way to obtain recordings through mp3 files. Hardware CDs are also available in shops, illegal CD stalls and night markets, priced at a quarter (1/4) of the original product price, major distributors and recording companies are no competition for these pirates.The market further deteriorated with the arrival of hardware such as mp3 players and mobile phones with such features.

The encouragement from the Malaysian government towards privatization of broadcasting stations received tremendous support from the public. An array of new radio and TV stations were built to facilitate the public’s interest in entertainment, news, movies and information.

It was during the early 2000 that introduction to a new form of entertainment call “Reality Shows” were able to gain public interest in music entertainment to some extent. Shows such as Akedemi Fantasia and Malaysian Idol allow the public to choose their own stars by sending SMS or short message system through hand phones or computers at the convenience of the audiences. This excited the public because they are involved in the choice of their stars and not artistes that are created by the recording companies.

Analyses implied that comparing from the past decades many other forms of entertainment such as DVDs, Cable TVs, increased radio programmes and change of life styles has affected the musical interest of the public towards local artistes. However, this is still not representative of the active live music circuit with performers who compose and perform their own materials. The rising tide of commercialisation and product placements using musicians and popular artists casts a giant shadow over the local independent music (or "underground") scene and gives a skewed perception of what the local music "industry" represents and the actual voice of local musicians who still actively perform at pubs, gig venues and cafes.

From reality shows, stars such as Vincent Chong, Jaclyn Victor, Daniel Lee Chee Hun and Mawi are able to command larger volumes of CD sales compared to new artistes. This diversity personifies the wide-ranging field of popular music in Malaysia and the unpredictability of Malaysian consumers towards popular cultural products.

Underground music

The Malaysian underground music scene (also known as the Malaysian independent or urban music scene, with the term "urban" introduced only in the late 90s) is an established localized underground culture within Malaysia. This is as opposed to mainstream music, which usually, in the Malaysian context refers to artists with strong ties or are engaged in direct contract with fairly large recording companies, giving them a more commercial and popular image.

Artists and musicians who are involved in the Malaysian underground scene are usually guitar-driven bands with inclination towards rock music, although there are a number of acts with differing musical influences such as folk, hip-hop, electronica and dance music.

One of the other characteristics of this local scene is that most of the musicians are independent, entirely or partially DIY-driven groups or bands who emphasise on creating, sharing and experiencing music, together and collectively. Materials that they produce, such as albums, demos or EPs will usually be independent works, most of the time funded entirely or to some extend by themselves. Also, small musical performances known as gigs are organized regularly showcasing these bands.

The state of Terengganu was known as the Malaysian capital of punk rock throughout late 1979 and the 1980s, but there were no bands then as the punks were too poor to afford the equipment. The scene then was more a covergence of pioneering punk rockers trading pre-recorded music and fanzines acquired from pen-pals and friends from overseas while dabbling in home-made DIY punk fashion. This early Malaysian punks started in 1978/79. The early punk scene in Terengganu hit its peak in the early 80s before gradually dying out in the mid 90s. A new generation picked it up again in the late-90s with bands, DIY labels and intermittent gigs.

The first rumblings of a bonafide "underground music scene", as in real bands and original recordings. in Malaysia actually started in the city of Kuala Lumpur in the mid-80s with bands such as Punisher, Nemesis, Rator etc. These pioneers paved the way for a huge explosion of bands in the early 90s and it continues today with bands and acts of many different permutations, from political, anarcho punk (Carburator Dung, Relationsheep, Mass Separation, Pusher etc.), hardcore (Chronic Mass, Basic Rights, Disaster Funhouse, Noisemonger, Cramp Mind, etc) to experimental, avant-garde noise (Amid the Mimic, Maharajah Commission, Ta, Goh Lee Kwang etc.) to singer-songwriters (Rafique Rashid, Pete Teo, Meor Aziddin Yusof, Azmyl Yunor, Jerome Kugan etc.) to Chinese indie (Moxuan, Lang Mang, KRMA, Nao etc.) to instrumental post-rock (Furniture, Sgt. Weener Arms etc.}.

Terengganu Punk: The Origins of Malaysian Punk Rock
The first proper punk rock "scene" in Malaysia started in Terengganu in 1978/1979. It started in the small town of Dungun by a group of friends influenced by British music magazines such as NME, Melody Maker, Sounds, and Zig Zag, as well as their brothers and friends living in the more modern West Coast cities who would pass them the magazines and music.

By late 1979, almost every secondary school in the state had its own cliques of punk rockers. They would hang out on the weekends at the main bus station in the capital city of Kuala Terengganu, with the usual punk rock regalia (badges, studs, safety pins and such). Too poor to afford guitars or any other musical instruments, there never was an actual punk band but trading of tapes and zines were vigorous.

Most of these coming from friends studying overseas, the friends living in the West Coast cities and also punk rockers from UK, Europe and US who were kind enough to send tapes and magazines for free. Irregular trips were made to Singapore and Kuala Lumpur (and Pulau Pinang, but rarely as it was too far) to dub punk rock records at the music stores or buy pirated tapes which were the only source for good music those days.

Some fishing villages would have the most punks and thus became the "centers" of activities. The main two villages were Kampung Mengabang Telipot (an hour north to the city) and Kampung Tanjung (right at the mouth of the city's river system). In Mengabang Telipot, there was a small bookstore selling magazines and music, which the kids would share. This bookstore is actually a wooden cupboard situated at one of the punk rockers' house.

The first Malaysian punk rock fanzine came out from this scene. It appeared in 1986 with the title of Huru Hara (meaning "chaos"); it was written in Terengganu slang by editor Mamat Hitam but never distributed in a large way. The first fanzine to do that was Aedes, which lasted until 1996; the first punk bands to appear there were Mallaria and later The Stone Crows. Both put out one rehearsal/demo tape.

There was a lull in activity in the mid-80s for the Terengganu punk scene, but a resurgence of bands of different persuasions appeared by the late 80s and early 90s (sparked in part by the setting up of a larger Malaysian underground music scene based in Kuala Lumpur in 1987). By the mid 90s onwards, there were constantly new bands appearing in the state and now in 2005, there are still a lot of punk-influenced bands and zines active.

Chinese Music

Hua Yue Tuan (華乐团) or Modern Chinese Orchestra is made up of a blend of western and traditional Chinese musical instruments. The music itself combines western polyphony with Chinese melodies and scales. Although the bulk of its repertoire consists of music imported from Hong Kong, Taiwan and China, many local Chinese orchestras also regularly perform Malay folk tunes with various local composers making a definite effort to absorb elements of surrounding musical cultures, especially Malay, into their compositions. In Malaysia, Chinese orchestras exist nationwide in urban areas which have large concentrations of Chinese Malaysians. Sponsored largely by various Chinese organisations including schools and Buddhist societies, a typical orchestra consists of between 12 to 50 members.

The orchestra is usually made up of four sections:

bowed string instruments, consisting of:
er-hu (二胡; range of 3 octaves performs the role of the violin)
pan-hu (板胡; similar to piccolo)
gao-hu (高胡; pitch is higher than er-hu)
zhong-hu (中胡; tenor er-hu, similaar to viola)
ge-hu (革胡; like the cello)
bei-da-ge-hu (倍大革胡; like the double bass)

plucked strings comprising various sized lutes :
pipa (琵琶; highest pitch)
liu-yue-qin (柳月琴)
yue-qin (月琴)
zhong-ruan (中阮)
da-ruan (大阮)
san xian (三弦)
gu-zheng (古筝)
yang-qin (扬琴)

the wind section consisting of:
di-zi (笛子; transverse flutes)
xiao (箫; vertical flutes)
sheng (笙; mouth organ)
suona (唢呐; reed aerophone)

percussion section consisting of:
paigu (排鼓; drums)
taigu (太鼓; drums)
dabo (大钹; cymbals)
lo (锣; hand held tam-tam)
shih mian lo (十面锣; frame mounted tam-tam)
ling (铃; bell)
ma ling (马铃; 5 suspended bells)
shuang yin mu (双音木), bang zi (棒子) and mu yu (木鱼; wood blocks)

There is no lack of virtuoso performers in the Chinese classical tradition in Malaysia. Advanced training is however not presently available with most Malaysian virtuoso musicians obtaining their advanced training either in China or Singapore. Various professional and semi-professional Chinese orchestras are in existence. Malaysian western trained classical conductors are employed full time. Much of the music played is imported from China. There are however some accomplished Malaysian composers for this medium such as Saw Boon Kiat and Chew Hee Chiat.

New generations of Chinese singers are more into pop music. These talented composer/singers includes Eric Moo, Lee Sin Je, Fish Leong, Z Chen , Penny Tai and lately Daniel Lee.

Indian Music

Indian music is very much associated with religious traditions and faiths. As its origins in India, there are two systems of traditional or classical Indian music in Malaysia, viz. the Carnatic and the Hindustani. Since Tamils from South India are the predominant group among the Indian population in Malaysia, it is the South Indian carnatic music which predominates. Simply speaking, Carnatic classical music is more lyric-oriented, while Hindustani classical music emphasises musical structure.

Indian classical music as it is performed in Malaysia has remained true to its origin. There is practically no other cultural influence. Other than reflecting Indian life, the purpose of Indian classical music is to refine the soul.

The fundamental elements of carnatic music are raaga and taala. A raaga is a scale of notes, while the taala is the time-measure. A carnatic music concert usually starts with a composition with lyrical and passages in a particular raaga. This will be followed by a few major and subsequently some minor compositions.

In Malaysia, traditional or classical Indian music are studied and performed by Malaysians of Indian ethnic origin with material that still comes from India. Musical productions are mainly in the form of dance dramas incorporating instrumental ensemble, vocal music and dance. Musical instruments used in the performances are imported from India.

Jazz,Classical & World Music

The 21st Century, gave birth to a variety of influences from different shores, which slowly but surely sipped in to the formation of an elite culture, strongly moved by the sophistication of Jazz and Classical Music. Students who left for Europe and the Americas brought back a stounch passion for these art forms, where it continues to thrive in its own accord. The Dewan Filharmonik Petronas (Petronas Philhrmonic Hall), home to the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra, sees through quality acts encompassing the art of Jazz,Classical and World Music.

Ethnic Music has also found a new and forceful following,with World Music Festivals like The Rainforest Music Festival which is held annually.

Firms like Trident Entertainment *[1] are known for their endless effort in the production/distribution of these art forms in Malaysia where the scene continues to bloom under their baton.

Petronas *[2] the petro-chemical giant which is responsible for construction of the Dewan Filharmonik Petronas (Petronas Philharmonic Hall) and the Sarawak Tourism Board are recognized contributors where Jazz,Classical & WorldMusic thrives. Schools like the Temple of Fine Arts (For Ethnic Indian Music) produces hundreds of students for the World Music Genre of Hindustani & Carnatic Music.

The country also gave birth to local musicians, who has achieved world standards namely Jazz Musicians Michael Veerapan,David Gomez,Zailan Razak,The Solianos as well as Ethnic Flutist Prabhu Ganesh and Drummer Lewis Pragasam Few of them have also attained qualification from renown music schools namely Berklee School of Music in Boston,MA and Julliard School of Music in NY.

Sunday, January 22, 2006



For other uses of this term, see Music (disambiguation).
Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary.

Music Portal
1 What is music?
2 Aspects of music
3 Common terms
4 Production
4.1 Performance
4.2 Solo and ensemble
4.3 Oral tradition and notation
4.4 Improvisation, interpretation, composition
4.5 Compositions
5 Reception and audition
6 Media
7 Education
7.1 Training
7.2 Secondary education
7.3 Study
8 History
9 Genres
10 Notes
11 Sources

What is music?

Those that define music as an external, physical fact, for example "organized sound", or as a specific type of perception
Those that label it, according to context, as a social construction or subjective experience
Those that label it as an artistic process or product, with the related psychological phenomena
Those that seek a platonic or quasi-platonic ideal of music which is not rooted in specifically physical or mental terms, but in a higher truth.
The definition of music as sound with particular characteristics is taken as a given by psychoacoustics, and is a common one in musicology and performance. In this view, there are observable patterns to what is broadly labeled music, and while there are understandable cultural variations, the properties of music are the properties of sound as perceived and processed by people.

Traditional philosophies define music as tones ordered horizontally (as melodies) and vertically (as harmonies). Music theory, within this realm, is studied with the presupposition that music is orderly and often pleasant to hear.

John Cage is the most famous advocate of the idea that anything can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound," though some argue that this somewhat fascistically imposes the definition on everything. According to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990 p.47-8,55): "The border between music and noise is always culturally defined--which implies that, even within a single society, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus.... By all accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining what music might be."

In support of the view that music is a label for a totality of different aspects which are culturally constructed. Often a definition of music lists the aspects or elements that make up music. Molino (1975: 43) argues that, in addition to a lack of consensus, "any element belonging to the total musical fact can be isolated, or taken as a strategic variable of musical production." Nattiez gives as examples Mauricio Kagel's Con Voce [with voice], where a masked trio silently mimes playing instruments. In this example sound, a common element, is excluded, while gesture, a less common element, is given primacy.

The platonic ideal of music is currently the least fashionable in the philosophy of criticism and music, because it is crowded on one side by the physical view - what is the metasubstance of music made of, if not sound? - and on the other hand by the constructed view of music - how can one tell the difference between any metanarrative of music and one which is merely intersubjective? However, its appeal, finding unexpected mathematical relationships in music, and finding analogies between music and physics, for example string theory, means that this view continues to find adherents, including such critics and performers as Charles Rosen and Edward Rothstein.

Aspects of music

The traditional or classical European aspects of music often listed are those elements given primacy in European-influenced classical music: melody, harmony, rhythm, tone color/timbre, and form. A more comprehensive list is given by stating the aspects of sound: pitch, timbre, loudness, and duration. 4 These aspects combine to create secondary aspects including structure, texture and style. Other commonly included aspects include the spatial location or the movement in space of sounds, gesture, and dance. Silence is also often considered an aspect of music, if it is considered to exist.

As mentioned above, not only do the aspects included as music vary, their importance varies. For instance, melody and harmony are often considered to be given more importance in classical music at the expense of rhythm and timbre. John Cage considers duration the primary aspect of music because it is the only aspect common to both "sound" and "silence."

It is often debated whether there are aspects of music that are universal. The debate often hinges on definitions, for instance the fairly common assertion that "tonality" is a universal of all music may necessarily require an expansive definition of tonality. A pulse is sometimes taken as a universal, yet there exist solo vocal and instrumental genres with free, improvisational rhythms with no regular pulse;5 one example is the alap section of a Hindustani music performance. According to Dane Harwood, "We must ask whether a cross-cultural musical universal is to be found in the music itself (either its structure or function) or the way in which music is made. By 'music-making,' I intend not only actual performance but also how music is heard, understood, even learned."

Common terms

Common terms used to discuss particular pieces include note, which is an abstraction that refers to either a specific pitch and/or rhythm or the written symbol; melody, which is a succession of notes heard as some sort of unit; chord, which is a simultaneity of notes heard as some sort of unit; chord progression which is a succession of chords (simultaneity succession); harmony, which is the relationship between two or more pitches; counterpoint, which is the simultaneity and organization of different melodies; and rhythm which is the organization of the durational aspects of music.


The music industry is that which creates, performs, and promotes music. A great deal of music is produced by amateurs.


Chinese Naxi musiciansSomeone who performs, composes, or conducts music is a musician. Performance is a method for musicians to share music with others.

Solo and ensemble

Many cultures include strong traditions of solo or soloistic performance, such as in Indian classical music, while other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organized performance rituals such as the modern classical concert or religious processions. What is called chamber music is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer is called a musician, a group being a musical ensemble such as a rock band or symphony orchestra.

Oral tradition and notation

Musical notationMusic is often preserved in memory and performance only, handed down orally, or aurally ("by ear"). Such music, especially that which has no known individual composer, is often classified as "traditional". Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those which demand improvisation. If the music is written down, it is generally in some manner which attempts to capture both what should be heard by listeners, and what the musician should do to perform the music. This is referred to as musical notation, and the study of how to read notation involves music theory. Written notation varies with style and period of music, and includes scores, lead sheets, guitar tablature, among the more common notations. Generally music which is to be performed is produced as sheet music. To perform music from notation requires an understanding of both the musical style and performance practice expected or acceptable.

Improvisation, interpretation, composition

Most cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material, or composition, as held in western classical music. Many, but fewer, cultures also include the related concept of interpretation, performing material conceived by others, to the contrasting concepts of improvisation and free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived. However, many cultures and people do not have this distinction at all, using a broader concept which incorporates both without discrimination. Improvised music virtually always follows some rules or conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material. See also, precompositional. Composition does not always mean the use of notation, or the known sole authorship of one individual.

Music can also be determined by describing a "process" which may create musical sounds, examples of this range from wind chimes, through computer programs which select sounds. Music which contains elements selected by chance is called Aleatoric music, and is most famously associated with John Cage and Witold Lutosławski.


Musical composition is a term that describes the makeup of a piece of music. Methods of composition vary widely, however in analyzing music all forms -- spontaneous, trained, or untrained -- are built from elements comprising a musical piece. Music can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised; composed on the spot. The music can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of musical notation, or some combination of both. Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers. What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. An understanding of music's formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece is made. A universal element of music is time or more generally rhythm. When a piece appears to have no time, it is considered rubato. The Italian term, meaning "free time," does not mean "without rhythm," but rather that the tempo or time of the piece changes dynamically. Even random placement of random sounds, often occurring in musical montage, occurs within some kind of time, and thus employs time as a musical element. Any musical event comprised of elements can be considered a "composition."

Reception and audition

Concert in the Mozarteum, SalzburgThe field of music cognition involves the study of many aspects of music including how it is processed by listeners.

Music is experienced by individuals in a huge variety of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concert. Concerts take many different forms and may include people dressing in formal wear and sitting quietly in the rows of auditoriums, drinking and dancing in a bar, or loudly cheering and booing in an auditorium.

Deaf people can experience music by feeling the vibrations in their body; the most famous example of a deaf musician is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, who composed many famous works even after he had completely lost his hearing. In more modern times, Evelyn Glennie, who has been deaf since the age of twelve, is a highly acclaimed percussionist. Also, Chris Buck, a violinist virtuoso and New Zealander, has recently lost his hearing.


The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence, or as one of, the musicians. Live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the internet. Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording which mixes together sounds which were never played "live". Recording, even of styles which are essentially live often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings which are considered "better" than the actual performance.

In many cultures there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, as virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal. In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century. Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds; for example, a DJ uses disc records for scratching.

Audiences can also become performers by using Karaoke, invented by the Japanese, which uses music video and tracks without voice, so the performer can add their voice to the piece.



Many people, including entire cultures, compose, perform, and improvise music with no training and feel no need for training. Other cultures have traditions of rigorous formal training that may take years and serious dedication. Sometimes this training takes the form of apprenticeship. For example, Indian training traditionally take more years than a college education and involves spiritual discipline and reverence for one's guru or teacher. In Bali, everyone learns and practices together. It is also common for people to take music lessons, short private study sessions with an individual teacher, when they want to learn to play or compose music, usually for a fee.

Secondary education

The incorporation of music performance and theory into a general liberal arts curriculum, from preschool to postsecondary education, is relatively common. Western style secondary schooling is increasingly common around the world, such as STSI in Bali. Meanwhile, western schools are increasingly including the study of the music of other cultures such as the Balinese gamelan, of which there are currently more than 200 in America.


Many people also study about music in the field of musicology. The earliest definitions of musicology defined three sub-disciplines: systematic musicology, historical musicology, and comparative musicology. In contemporary scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology. Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. The study of music of non-western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology.

In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions.

Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog (1941) asked, "do animals have music?" François-Bernard Mâche's Musique, mythe, nature, ou les Dauphins d'Arion (1983), a study of "ornitho-musicology" using a technique of Ruwet's Language, musique, poésie (1972) paradigmatic segmentation analysis, shows that birdsongs are organized according to a repetition-transformation principle. In the opinion of Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990), "in the last analysis, it is a human being who decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organized and conceptualized (that is, made to form music) merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then music is uniquely human."

Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology. What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal music. Theory, even that which studies music of the common practice period, may take many other forms. Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition.


The history of music in relation to human beings predates the written word and is tied to the development and unique expression of various human cultures. Music has influenced man, and vice versa, since the dawn of civilization. Popular styles of music varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Different cultures emphasized different instruments, or techniques. Music history itself is the (distinct) subfield of musicology and history, which studies the history of music theory.


As there are many definitions for music there are many divisions and groupings of music, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music. Among the larger genres are classical music, popular music or commercial music (including rock and roll), country music and folk music.

There is often disagreement over what constitutes "real" music: Mozart, Stravinsky, serialism, Jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music at various times and places.

The term world music has been applied to a wide range of music made outside of Europe and European influence, although its initial application, in the context of the World Music Program at Wesleyan University, was as a term including all possible music genres, including European traditions. (In academic circles, the original term for the study of world music, "comparative musicology", was replaced in the middle of the twentieth century by "ethnomusicology", which is still an unsatisfactory coinage.)

Giants of the 20th Century: Frank Sinatra and Ella FitzgeraldGenres of music are as often determined by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. While most classical music is acoustic and meant to be performed by individuals or groups, many works described as "classical" include samples or tape, or are mechanical. Some works, like Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music.

As world cultures have been in greater contact, their indigenous musical styles have often merged into new styles. For example, the US-American bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and some African-American instrumental and vocal traditions, and could only have been a product of the 20th Century.

Many current music festivals celebrate a particular musical genre.